Tips and Aspects to Consider
1. Nature of the Activity
Opportunity for Success
- Consider activities that do not single-out participants who make mistakes or who have lower skill levels (for example, elimination games).
- Change the target or goal area to allow for a greater degree of success (for example, score some points for landing near target but more points for landing in the target).
Cooperation Versus Competitiveness
- Encourage cooperation during activities by promoting teamwork as opposed to individual success (for example, appoint specific roles and skills that will capitalize on individual strengths).
- Adapt the activity so that all players must participate in some way in order to win (for example, everyone must touch ball before scoring).
- Play two people in one position to promote teamwork and cooperation (for example, allow more than one goaltender at a time).
Inclusion Versus Elimination
- Avoid games where participation gradually decreases as those with lower skill levels are eliminated (for example, traditional dodgeball).
- Use frequent substitution rather than elimination.
- Provide a variety of sizes and types of balls that are more easily caught, seen or heard (or, use scarves or bean bags as alternatives). Examples are:
- Lighter balls - beach, sponge, yarn;
- Larger balls - beach or monster;
- Balls with tails - foxtails or ribbons;
- Brightly coloured balls.
- Use larger targets or goals.
- Give participants the option of moving closer to targets without penalty.
- Raise or lower the target.
Racquets or Bats
- Shorten the handle.
- Lighter bats (for example, plastic).
- Racquets with larger faces.
- Decrease the playing area (for example, court size).
- Increase or decrease the time limits on game/activity.
- Use more than one ball or puck.
- Alter the number of players allowed on court or playing field.
- Increase or decrease boundary limitations (for example, allow ball to hit the wall).
Make adaptations during activities that will increase student success, participation and independence and, ultimately, improve physical education and daily physical activity programs for all students.
Adaptations for Rural and Isolated Communities
At times, the lesson plans may suggest activities or applications that may be difficult to implement outdoors in a rural or isolated community. When this is the case, the following adaptations should be considered:
- Use Smart Boards to simulate the conditions of an outdoor environment.
- Visit a "safety community", if one is available in your area. Safety communities provide small scale simulations of road and general safety scenarios. While there is no comprehensive listing of communities in Ontario, you might visit one of the following sites to learn more and to help you locate one near you:
General Road Safety Information
The information provided in this section reflects the standards, recommendations and information provided by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO). You may find additional information by consulting the MTO website www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/
For statistics on specific types of injuries and fatalities, you may consult the Ontario road safety annual report www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/safety/orsar/orsar06/.
1. Impaired Driving1
Impaired driving, which means driving while your ability is affected by alcohol or drugs, is a crime under the Criminal Code of Canada. If convicted, you can lose your licence, be fined, or spend time in jail. Your vehicle does not even have to be moving; you can be charged if you are impaired behind the wheel, even if you have not started to drive.
Drinking and Driving
Drinking and driving is a deadly combination. One drink can reduce your ability to concentrate and react to things that happen suddenly while you are driving. The more alcohol in your blood, the more difficulty you have judging distances and reacting to sudden hazards on the road. To make matters worse, your vision may be blurred.
Drugs and Driving
Any drug that changes your mood, or the way you see and feel, will affect the way you drive. This is not only true for illegal drugs, but also for some prescription and over-the-counter drugs that may impair your driving ability.
Tips to remember
- If you are planning on drinking, plan not to drive.
- Ask your doctor about side effects if you use prescription medication or get allergy shots.
- Read the information on the package of any over-the-counter medicine, including allergy and cold remedies.
- Drugs and alcohol together can combine to impair your driving even more. You should always ask your doctor or pharmacist about side affects of pharmaceuticals.
- Fatigue and stress will also affect your ability to drive.
Consequences of Drinking and Driving
Ontario leads the way in combating drinking and driving by way of having some of the toughest laws and programs in North America.
Roadside Licence Suspension
Fully-licenced drivers will face immediate roadside licence suspension for:
- Refusing a breath test;
- Registering a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.05 or more (50 milligrams of alcohol in every 100 millilitres of blood).
As of May 1, 2009, Ontario has targeted measures to help take more drinking drivers off the roads. Drivers who register a blood alcohol concentration from 0.05 to 0.08from (known as the "warn range") lose their licence at roadside for 3, 7 or 30 days. Consequences also get tougher for repeat occurrences.
Novice drivers in the Graduated Licensing System (GLS) must maintain a zero BAC while driving or face an immediate suspension at roadside, a 30 day licence suspension and a fine upon conviction.
Consequences for impaired driving are serious: you can lose your licence; be fined; or, spend time in jail. Plus, you don't have to be over the Criminal Code blood alcohol limit of 0.08 to face serious consequences.
Convicted Impaired Drivers
If you drive impaired, and your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is more than 0.08, or you fail or refuse to comply with alcohol or drug testing, you can be convicted under the Criminal Code. Individuals convicted for impaired driving offences face penalties under the Canada's Criminal Code and Ontario's Highway Traffic Act. Upon conviction, consequences include additional suspension period, alcohol education or treatment programs, Ignition Interlock Program and fines.
Driving-related Criminal Code convictions remain on a driver's record for at least 10 years.
In Ontario drivers who are caught driving while their licence is suspended for a Criminal Code driving conviction will have the vehicle they are driving impounded for a minimum of 45 days.
Regardless of whether the vehicle is rented, leased or loaned to a friend or family member, the vehicle will be impounded. The vehicle owner will be liable for all towing and impoundment costs.
2. Off-road Vehicles2
What are Off-Road Vehicles?
Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are vehicles intended for recreational use, including two or three-wheeled motorized vehicles and specific vehicles with four or more wheels which are described in details in regulations. An ORV with the following traits is allowed access to provincial roads:
- Four wheels, the tires of which are all in contact with the ground;
- Steering handlebars;
- A seat that is designed to be straddled by the driver;
- Designed to carry a driver only and no passengers.
Where are Off-Road Vehicles Allowed to Travel?
Certain off-road vehicles are allowed to operate on the shoulder of the road and can move to the travelled portion of the highway if the shoulder is impassable or unsafe. Generally, these vehicles are allowed access to highways 500-899, 7000 series highways and highways with low traffic volume (Summer Average Daily Traffic less than 5000).
The specific sections of highways are defined in the regulation schedules. Please refer to www.e-laws.gov.on.ca for details.
Municipalities have the authority to pass by-laws to define if, where and when off-road vehicle use is appropriate on municipal roads.
Off-road vehicles are not allowed on rights-of-way (for example, medians) between opposing lanes of traffic. They cannot operate in a construction zone, on a closed highway or within a provincial park, unless allowed by the park.
Driver's Licence and Registration Requirements
- Riders must wear a motorcycle helmet, have either a valid G2/G driver's licence or an M2/M motorcycle licence, registration and insurance.
- ORVs must be registered and have a valid permit except in exempt areas (for example, far Northern Ontario).
- Previous exemptions for farmers, trappers and public utility workers remain in place.
- More information is available in the Driver's Handbook at www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/dandv/driver/handbook/index.shtml
Rules of the Road
- ORV operators must observe a speed limit lower than posted limits.
- Passengers are not allowed unless ATV is designed for more than one passenger.
- ORVs may tow trailers.
- The driver's view (in all directions) must not be obstructed.
- It is against the law to drive an off-road vehicle when impaired by alcohol or drugs.
- Riders must operate their ORV on the side of the road in the same direction as traffic.
Vehicle Equipment Standards
- ORVs must have the specified equipment (for example, head lights, tail lights, working brakes, reflectors, low-pressure bearing tires).
- Width and weight restrictions appropriate to type of vehicle.
Can an ORV operator be charged for drinking and driving?
It is against the law to drive an off-road vehicle when impaired by alcohol or drugs.
If the ORV driver is impaired or has a blood alcohol concentration of more than 80 milligrams in 100 millilitres of blood (.08), or if the driver refuses to take a breathalyzer test, they can be charged under the Criminal Code of Canada.
If convicted, the driver will have a criminal record and may be required to pay a fine.
If a driver is convicted for the first time, he/she will receive a one-year driver's licence suspension. If convicted a second time, his/her driver's licence will be suspended for three years. For a third conviction, the driver would get a lifetime suspension from driving with the possibility of reinstatement after 10 years. Those convicted a fourth time will be suspended from driving for life with no possibility of reinstatement.
The convicted driver must also complete a remedial measures program assessment, education, treatment and follow-up before getting a driver's licence reinstated. Suspended drivers must pay $150 Administrative Monetary Penalty prior to having their licence reinstated and will be subject to the Ignition Interlock Program.
Owning and Operating a Snowmobile in Ontario
Snowmobiling is a popular winter activity in Ontario. Whether you are a beginner or have participated for a number of years, knowing how to operate the vehicle safely is an imperative. The following highlights what you need to know to own and drive a snowmobile safely.
Make It A Safe Ride
- Obey speed limits and road or trail signs and always drive within your ability. Reduce your speed when driving at night and watch out for fences, guide wires and other objects that are more difficult to spot at night.
- Avoid driving on frozen lakes and rivers. If it can't be avoided, check ice conditions beforehand. Wear a buoyant snowmobile suit. Carry ice picks and make sure they are accessible.
- Tell someone of your outing; including where you are going, the route, description of your snowmobile and your expected time of return.
- Never travel alone - always with a friend. Always be prepared for the unexpected.
- Exercise caution at road and rail crossings.
- Never drive impaired. Alcohol, illegal drugs and some prescription or over-the-counter drugs can slow your reaction time and affect your ability to make good decisions. If convicted of impaired driving on a snowmobile, you will lose your driving privileges for all types of vehicles, including motor vehicles, commercial vehicles and motorcycles.
- Use appropriate hand signals when driving with others before stopping, slowing down or turning. Exercise caution on corners and hills and always remain on the right-hand side of the trail.
- Never ride on private property without the permission of the land owner.
- Dress appropriately. Wear clothing in layers and always carry extra dry clothing with you.
- Carry a survival kit that includes: first aid kit; trail map and compass; matches or lighter in waterproof container; knife, saw or axe; flashlight and whistle; high energy food such as nuts or granola bars and a mechanical kit (spare spark plug and drive belt, tow rope, extra ignition key, screwdriver, wrenches and hammer), plus the owner's manual.
- Check the weather forecast before heading out. Contact the local snowmobile club to find out current trail and ice conditions.
Drinking and Snowmobiling
It is against the law to drive a snowmobile while impaired by alcohol or drugs.
If a snowmobile driver has a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 50 to 80 milligrams in 100 millilitres of blood (0.05 to 0.08), they could receive a roadside driver licence suspension of up to 30 days.
If a snowmobile driver is impaired or has a BAC of more than 0.08, or fails or refuses to comply with alcohol or drug testing, his/her driver licence will be suspended immediately for 90 days and they can be charged with impaired driving under the Criminal Code of Canada.
Individuals convicted of impaired driving on a snowmobile will lose their driving privileges (including their privilege to drive a car) for a minimum of one year.
For more information on drinking and driving consequences in Ontario, visit www.ontario.ca/drivesober
Anyone 16 and over who has a valid Ontario driver's licence, motorized snow vehicle operator's licence (MSVOL) or a licence from another jurisdiction is allowed to drive a snowmobile across a road, on roadways where legally permitted and on trails. The Ontario Federation of Snowmobile Clubs issues the MSVOL. To get this licence, you must successfully pass a snowmobile driver training course. Contact your local snowmobile club to obtain more information about the MSVOL program or visit the Ontario Federation of Snowmobile Clubs website, www.ofsc.on.ca
If you do not have a driver's licence and you are 12 years of age or older, a valid MSVOL, or a licence from another jurisdiction authorizing you to drive a snowmobile will allow you to drive on trails. Drivers must carry a driver's licence or MSVOL at all times their. Failing to produce either of these documents to a police officer or conservation officer when requested could result in a fine of up to $1,000.
The Motorized Snow Vehicles Act is the primary piece of legislation that governs snowmobiling in Ontario. To view the MSVA and other Ontario laws and regulations, visit www.e-laws.gov.on.ca
Registration and Insurance
Before driving a snowmobile, it must be registered with the Ministry of Transportation. If you are operating the snowmobile off your own property, the registration must be valid and you must have liability insurance. Carry both the registration permit and the insurance card with you when riding. Failing to produce either of these documents to a police officer or conservation officer when requested could result in a fine of up to $1,000.
Snowmobile drivers and passengers are required to wear a helmet that meets the standards approved for motorcycle helmets. Passengers on a cutter, sled or similar device towed by a snowmobile must also wear a helmet.
A rigid tow-bar must be used when towing a sled or similar device behind a snowmobile.
Where to Ride
- Your own property.
- Private trails belonging to organizations of which you are a member.
- Private property, with the owner's permission.
- Between the shoulder and fence line (not on the shoulder) along public roads, except where prohibited (check with a municipality on by-laws for roads within its boundaries)
- Certain high-speed roads, including 400 series highways, the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW), Ottawa Queensway and Kitchener-Waterloo Expressway.
- The travelled portion (from shoulder to shoulder) of a public road, except when crossing at a 90-degree angle.
50 km/h - on snowmobile trails.
20 km/h - on roads where the speed limit is 50 Km/h or less.
50 km/h - on roads where the speed limit is over 50 Km/h.
Ontario's snowmobile trail system is maintained by many snowmobile clubs. Trails are patrolled by the Ontario Provincial Police, municipal police, conservation officers and Snowmobile Trail Officer Patrol (STOP) officers. Some trails may require a trail permit. Check with the local snowmobile club to find out if you need one. For trails operated by the Ontario Federation of Snowmobile Clubs, you must have and display a valid trail permit. This includes trails on private property, municipal property and land owned by the government. For information about trails and trail permits, contact the Ontario Federation of Snowmobile Clubs. Drivers convicted of driving without a trail permit on an OFSC designated trail, failing to provide evidence of their trail permit, or not properly affixing the permit to their snowmobile face fines of up to $1,000.
Prepare for the Conditions
Drive at a reduced speed and avoid travelling faster than the beam of your headlight can shine ahead. Riding at night reduces your visibility and your ability to spot hazards. It also reduces your ability to estimate distances. Wear clothing that has reflective markings so that you are visible.
Riding on Ice
Avoid travelling on frozen lakes, rivers and ponds as it presents the danger of breaking through the ice or driving into open water. Anytime you travel on ice, you put yourself and your passengers at risk. If travelling on ice cannot be avoided, always be sure to check the conditions as they can change in a matter of hours and wear a buoyant snowmobile suit. Carry ice picks with you and make sure they are accessible. Remember, your stopping distance is further on ice. Always travel on ice that is new, hard and clear. Never travel on ice that is slushy, weak, near moving water or has thawed and refrozen.
Wind and Cold
Wear layers so that you can add or remove clothing to adapt to changing conditions. A windproof outer layer (snowmobile suit), warm mitts or gloves, warm boots and insulated helmet are recommended. Thermal layers will allow your body to retain heat while releasing moisture. Remember, exposure to extreme cold can lead to frostbite and hypothermia. Body temperature can be affected by outside air temperature and wind speed.
There is a risk of frostbite to exposed skin with a wind chill at or below -25°C. Frostbite is possible in 10 minutes to warm skin with a wind chill at or below -35°C (shorter if skin is cool) and possible in less than 2 minutes with a wind chill at or below -60°C (shorter if skin is cool). Alcohol can also lower your body temperature, which in turn increases the risk of hypothermia.
4. Driving Distractions4
Smart Drivers Just Drive!
When driving a vehicle, road safety is your first responsibility! Driving is a task that requires your full attention every time you get behind the wheel. As a driver, you must always remember to reduce driver distractions and focus on the driving task.
In April of 2009, the Ontario government passed a new law that prohibits the use of hand-held wireless communication devices or hand-held electronic entertainment devices while driving. The use of hands-free devices will still be permitted and you can still use hand-held devices in emergency situations, such as calls to 911. The law also prohibits viewing display screens unrelated to driving such as laptops and DVD players.5
Using a hand-held or hands-free cell phone while driving makes a collision four times more likely. In fact, using a cell phone affects what a driver sees, reduces reaction time and changes the way drivers react - especially in heavy traffic. Motor vehicle collisions are the greatest single cause of traumatic workplace deaths in Ontario.
There are a number of potential driver distractions, including:
- Technology devices such as laptops, MP3s and headphones;
- Reading maps or other material;
- Grooming activities;
- Eating or drinking;
- Note taking;
- Conversing with passengers;
- Tending to children or pets;
- Adjusting in-vehicle controls (radio, climate control and CD player).
The following are some tips to help reduce driver distraction:
- Put reading material in trunk if tempted to read;
- Attend to personal grooming and plan your route before leaving;
- Identify and preset your vehicle's climate control, radio and CD player;
- Make it a habit to use your cell phone only when parked, have a passenger take the call or let the caller go to voice mail;
- Do not engage in emotional or complex conversation;
- If you are hungry or thirsty, take a break.
Having a cellular phone in your vehicle can be an important safety aid for drivers and passengers, whether for personal safety or for reporting a crime or a collision. If you must use your cell phone in an emergency that threatens your safety, consider the following tips:
- Pull over safely if conditions allow;
- Keep emergency calls as brief as possible;
- Alert the caller that you are on the road;
- End conversations immediately if driving conditions or situations become hazardous (for example, inclement weather, roadway construction, high-speed or high-volume traffic).